The geology of Iceland is unique and of particular interest to geologists. Iceland lies on the geologic rift between the Eurasian plate and the North American plate. It also lies above a hotspot, the Iceland plume which is believed to have caused the formation of Iceland itself. The result is an island of volcanism and geothermal phenomena such as geysers.  And due to its northerly location there are many glaciers in Iceland, which long term existence is now threatened by Global Warming.

Volcanic eruptions and earthquakes are frequent and often devastating. The eruption of Laki in 1783 caused much devastation and loss of life and affected Europe.In the period 1963 to 1967 the new island of Surtsey was created on the southwest coast by a volcanic eruption.  In the spring of 2010 the eruption of Eyjafjallajokull caused widespread disruption to flights in Europe.